Felíz Loron Internasionál ba Diversidade Biolójiku!

Felíz Loron Internasionál ba Diversidade Biolójiku!

Hahu iha tinan 2000, Nasaun Unidus proklama kada dia 22 de Máiu hanesan Loron Internasionál ba Diversidade Biolójiku (DBI) hodi dezenvolve komprensaun no konsiénsia kona-ba biodiversidade no asuntu global ne’ebé serka variasaun naturais iha espesies, ekosistema no jenétika.

Dezde tinan 2002, kada tinan DBI fó sai nia tema ida, mak hanesan Biodiversidade, Dezenvolvimentu no Redusaun Pubreza (2010), Biodiversidade no Agrikultura (2008) no Biodiversidade: Seguru de Vida ba Ita Na Mundu ne’ebé Mudansa (2005).

Variedade MAP-SoL nian nunka hanesan hybrida ou GMO, no la depende ba input adisionál hanesan ai-moruk kímiku ne’ebé importa ou adubu ho folin ne’ebé aas

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© Alexia Skok/Seeds of Life

Tema ba tinan 2014 mak Biodiversidade Illa, no kuaze iha ligasaun uitoan ho alvu Seeds of Life nian atu aumenta biodiversidade husi ai-horis prinsipál iha metade husi Illa Timor Leste. Atividade MAP-SoL nian selebra biodiversidade Timor-Leste nian, enkuantu responsabiliza ba habelar variasaun jenétiku husi ai-horis prinsipál. Variedade MAP-SoL nian nunka hanesan hybrida ou GMO, no la depende ba input adisionál hanesan ai-moruk kímiku ne’ebé importa ou adubu ho folin ne’ebé aas.

Biodiversidade importante tebes iha mantein kualker ekosistema ne’ebé sustentável no bele fahe ba iha dalan rua ne’ebé diferente; konserva moris iha ekosfera atuál, no aumenta variasaun liu husi introdus variedade ai-horis ne’ebé adekuadu, sustentável no halo testu.

Dezde inísiu 2000, MAP-SoL akompaña ona evolusaun natural husi troka jenétiku internasionál Timor Leste nian. MAP-SoL importa, halo peskiza iha estasaun no halo testu iha agrikultór nain 3000 nia to’os antes habarak no habelar variedade ai-horis ne’ebé bele hasa’e produsaun, asegura siguransa ai-han no vida moris familia agrikultór nain 130,000 no komunidade ne’ebé hela iha área rurais.

Biodiversidade iha Timor-Leste akompaña prosesu natural husi fahe ai-horis ne’ebé akontese iha rejiaun Ázia Pasífiku durante sékulu hirak nia laran. Iha Timor-Leste ne’ebé mayoria komunidade agrikultór hanesan komunidade ne’ebé subsisténsia, iha deit variedade uitoan ne’ebé diferente mak introdus durante periódu tinan 3,500 nia laran. Iha segundu metade sékulu 20, agrikultór Timorense kuaze koko variedade ai-horis ho númeru ne’ebé aumenta makaas ne’ebé haruka mai husi rai sira ne’ebé dok. Espesies ai-horis barak hanesan batar, hare, ai-farina, fehuk midar, forerai, tomate no ai-manas la’os orijinalmente mai husi Timor-Leste maibe introdus husi komersiante, okupante no kolonialízmu sira husi nasaun sira ne’ebé dok.

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© Unknown/Seeds of Life

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© Alexia Skok/Seeds of Life

Peanut farmer in Natabora.

© Jessy Betty/Seeds of Life

Variedade natural sira ne’ebé introdus kuaze koko ona husi agrikultór sira, hili husi agrikultór sira, mantein no haloot husi agrikultór, no fahe entre komunidade sira ne’ebé iha durante sékulu hirak nia laran. MAP-SoL haforte prátika tradisionál ida ne’e liu husi uja peskiza no siénsia hodi simplifika introdusaun no prosesu selesaun no efikasmente hasai tiha variedade hirak ne’ebé deskobre la adekuadu ho kondisaun Timor Leste nian ne’ebé dalabarak extremu em termus de rai lolon, rai, udan been, elevasaun no agrikultór sira-nia prátika.

Movimentu ai-horis espesies foun mai Timor Leste kuaze limitadu tebes. Por exemplu, agora dadaun kuaze iha deit ai-farina variedade oin 50 mak kuda iha teritóriu laran tomak. Faktus ne’ebé iha, globalmente iha variedade ai-farina kuaze rihun ba rihun, ne’ebé barak mak la existe iha Timor Leste. Exemplu di’ak seluk mak hanesan batar. Variedade batar típu “farina/trigu” ne’ebé kuda iha América hodi halo tortilla no táco seidauk introdus iha Timor Leste.

Fehuk midar sai ona hanesan parte ida husi ai-han Timorense sira-nian durante tinan atus ba atus. No iha deit variasaun fehuk midar uitoan mak existe iha Timor Leste. Fehuk midar foun kór laran laranja ne’ebé foin dadaun ne’e introdus ho naran Hohrae 3 lansa ona husi MAP-SoL iha tinan 2007 no agora ita kuaze haree barak ona iha bikan laran husi komunidade sira iha teritóriu laran tomak. Ida ne’e popular tebes atu kuda no han, nia tahan mos bele han no bele moris iha kondisaun rai oinsa deit. Hohrae 3 hanesan fonte di’ak ba Vitamina A no riku karboidratu kompleksu ne’ebé ajuda kombate malnutrisaun ba labarik sira iha Timor Leste. Variedade ida ne’e mos fó nia rezultadu produsaun kuaze dóbru kompara ho variedade lokál ho tempu kuda ne’ebé metade husi lokál, nune’e fasilita serbisu todan ne’ebé agrikultór sira halo. Fehuk midar kór laran laranja ida ne’e aumenta diversidade iha teritóriu laran, nune’e mos ba saude no bem-star sidadaun sira-nian.

Variedade forerai foun Utamua iha rezisténsia ba problema kafuak iha tahan. Ida ne’e signifika fó tahan ne’ebé diak iha tempu koileta no bele fó han ba animal. Variedade seluk husi batar ne’ebé lansa husi MAP-SoL mak Sele, ne’ebé iha kain forte halo rezisténsia hasoru anin bo’ot. Rezisténsia ba kain dodok, ne’ebé hanesan problema moras batar ne’ebé dalabarak akontese iha Timor Leste laran tomak.

MAP-SoL respeita no rekoñese métodu halo to’os tradisionál iha Timor-Leste no serbisu hamutuk ho agrikultór sira hodi mantein biodiversidade no respeita sira-nia ligasaun ho rai no istória. Agrikultór Timorense sempre iha, no sempre hakarak atu kuda variedade husi sira-nia beiala sira, signifika sempre mantein nafatin diversidade ne’ebé iha. Diversidade tradisionál ida ne’e labele regula no hatudu sinál para labele diminui.

MAP-SoL agora dadaun halo peskiza ba variedade foun oin sia ne’ebé nia objetivu atu halo lansamentu iha tinan 2017 inklui fehuk midar kór laran roxo, variedade koto mean oin rua, variedade foremunggu oin rua, variedade hare oin rua no variedade duhaen oin ida. Variedade koto mean haruka mai husi Rwanda no forte liu, boot liu, produsaun aas liu no moris diak liu variedade ne’ebé baibain uja. Variedade ne’e hili ona ba testu no demonstrasaun iha to’os (OFDTs) iha Timor-Leste depois de introdus husi ambiente ne’ebé hanesan iha África. Se kuandu laiha kooperasaun internasionál no fahe gene, maka Timor-Leste sei laiha asesu ba ai-horis ne’ebé iha potensialidade atu produs iha ne’e.

Infelizmente, ameasa bo’ot ba biodiversidade iha Timor-Leste mak hanesan introdusaun du’ut husi rai liur, partikularmente du’ut manulai (Chromelaena odorata) ne’ebé introdus liu husi kamoneta militár husi Indonézia nian. Du’ut ida ne’e agora dadaun moris iha rai fuik, ne’ebé du’ut no ai-han fuik sira seluk moris ba, ne’ebé hamenus diversidade husi ai-han fuik ne’ebé komunidade Timorense barak sira konsumi (ne’ebé bele rejolve problema rai hamlaha no mos sabór husi variedade hirak ne’e han gostu). Du’ut ne’ebé ita lakohi no estraga ba diversidade.

Serbisu makaas husi MAP-SoL komplementa husi projetu paralelu iha komponente peskiza MAP nian, ne’ebé nia objetivu atu konserva gene husi variedade “lokál” liu husi koleksaun variedade ne’ebé baibain uja no garante ho mantein sira-nia pureza jenétiku.

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