B. Crop and variety identification and development

B. Crop and variety identification and development

B1. Aflatoxin levelsThe Evaluation of aflatoxin level in food and seed in Timor-Leste

Luis de Almeida,Robert Williams, Harry Nesbitt, William Erskine

Aflatoxin contamination of crops is a major health issue worldwide, but the extent of the problem is unknown in Timor-Leste. This paper is an attempt to provide some evidences on the extent of maize and peanuts Aflatoxin contamination across the country. For this study, HPLC and Aflatoxin Quick Test methods were selected. This research observed four years from 2013-2016. For maize, 80 samples in each of two years (2012/13 and 2013/14) have been analysed and 80 samples for peanut were collected 2013/14. The results showed that 7.5% and 13.5% of maize for 1st and 2nd round collection respectively, were higher than WHO food safety standard of 15ppb.  For peanuts, 6.2% of 80 samples were higher than WHO standard. Although the initial testing showed low levels of Aflatoxin contamination, the authors recommend continued research to establish relevant documentation and awareness on food Aflatoxin contamination in Timor-Leste.

B2. Drought resistant crop speciesIdentification of drought resistance legume crop species for growing them after rice to improve food security in Timor-Leste

Marcal Gusmao

Although agriculture plays an important role in East Timor (Timor-Leste), land availability for crop production is increasingly limited due to a dramatic increase in population in recent decades. As a consequence, there is a high human pressure on land use with unsustainable practices “Slash and Burn” for crop production. This practice is common on steep slopes and thus it leads to the loss of top soil and fertility. As a result, yields of crops decrease from time to time leading to continuous food insecurity in rural areas. On the other hand, in the low land areas, the land is mostly used for mono-crop rice production which starts from mid-February to around July and is then abandoned until February next growing season. However, there is sufficient soil moisture at the harvest of rice that can be utilized for growing drought resistance legume crops. The objective of the study was to identify drought resistance grain legume species for growing them after rice. A total of 11 local and introduced grain legumes were screened for their adaptation to water deficit during reproduction at a lowland Field Trial of the Faculty of Agriculture, UNTL and high land in Aileu in July 2012.

B3. Ai-han husi serealAi-han husi sereál iha Timor-Leste hahu tinan 1961-2014

Abril Fátima; Robert Williams; Luis de Almeida

Timor-Leste hanesan nasaun ne’ebé sei dezenvolve-an presiza tau matan ba ai-han prinsipál hodi dezenvolve atu bele hetan seguransa ai-han ba populasaun Timor-Leste. Objetivu husi peskiza ida ne’e atu kompara ai-han iha tempu kolonizasaun Português, tempu okupasaun Indonézia no tempu Independénsia, hodi hatene iha tempu saida mak populasaun sira nia ai-han husi sereál hanesan batar ho hare hetan kuantidade barak no uitoan hodi sustenta sira-nia moris. Bazeia ba dadus ai-han tinan 1961-2014, ne’ebé partilla husi Website Faostat3.fao.org ba software Exel spread sheet data hodi halo analiza hatudu rezultadu ai-han kilograma ba ka-da ema iha nasaun Timor-Leste. Iha tempu kolonizasaun Português tinan ne’ebé ai-han aumenta uitoan 1962 (50kg/ema) no ai-han menus liu iha tinan 1971 (25kg/ema) tanba akontese udan boot iha territóriu Timor-Leste. Iha tempu okupasaun Indonézia ai-han barak iha tinan 1991 (149kg/ema) no ai-han uitoan iha tinan 1998 (83kg/ema) tanba krize polítika ba ukun rasik-an ne’ebé halo populasaun la hakmatek hodi buka ai-han. Tempu Independénsia ai-han aumenta iha tinan 2010 (180kg/ema) no ai-han menus iha tinan 2011 (88kg/ema) tanba impaktu husi fenómena La Niña. Ai-han sereál hanesan batar ho hare nia kuantidade iha Timor Leste seidauk hetan balansu ho númeru populasaun no presiza aumenta atu bele hetan ai-han naton ba sosiedade Timorense ho jerasaun ne’ebé sei aumenta iha futuru. Ai-han lokál (rai laran nian) ita bele hatete katak ai-han menus liu iha tempu kolonizasaun Português, aumenta uitoan iha tempu okupasaun Indonézia ho Ukun-rasik-an nia tempu maibé seidauk bele asegura seguransa ai-han ba povu nasaun Timor-Leste.

B4. Efeitu tempu kudaEfeitu tempu kuda no frekuénsia habou rai ba produsaun forerai Utamua (Arachis  Hypogeae, L)  uza Sistema kuda kahur ho batar Noi-mutin (Zea mays, L) tinan 2014-2015

Inacio Savio Pereira

Peskiza kuda kahur (intercropping) batar-forerai, iha liña ida ba batar entre liña rua ba forerai. Ho kontrollu batar no forerai kuda iha idaidak nia liña. Dezeñu ne’ebé uza mak hafahe kantaderu (rancangan petak terbagi/split plot design) ho replikasaun tolu. Tratamentu ne’ebé aplika mak tempu kuda forerai hamutuk ho batar (T1), loron 7 depois kuda batar (T2), no loron 14 depois kuda batar (T3), no frekuénsia habou rai ba forerai nia hun. Tratamentu ne’ebé fó ba forerai mak hanesan la habou rai (B0), habou rai dala ida (B1) no habou rai dala rua (B2). Rezultadu produsaun batar-forerai laiha diferensa signifikante entre fatór rua.

B5. Maize in TLMaize improvement in Timor-Leste

Leandro C.R. Pereira

Agriculture sector plays an important role in Timor-Leste (TL) as almost 80% of its population relays on this sector. It is estimated that around 40% of all households involving in agriculture sector are subsistence farmers with low input farming practices. There are various food crop commodities grown in TL, however; maize (Zea Mays L.) is the most common staple crop. Some  high yield maize varieties were tested in replicated trials in farmer’s fields at different agro-ecological zones across TL. Three superior varieties have been released (Suwan 5, Sele and Noi Mutin. All introduced maize varieties tested at the beginning of MAF/ SoL program was intended for increasing production and improving food security. More recently maize populations introduced for testing have good nutritional value (high Vitamin A) and mycotoxin resistance (including Aflatoxin).

B6. Rezultado peskiza leheRezultado peskiza lehe (Mucuna Pruriens)(L.)DC.) iha to’os nain sira-nia to’os (OFDT) tinan 2014-2015

Salvador De Jesus

Lehe (Mucuna Pruriens) (L.)DC.) kategoria ba ai-horis fore (legume). Fatin balun iha Timor Leste konsumi hanesan ai-han wainhira iha tempu rai, maibe nia prosesu teink da’an la hanesan ho fore sira seluk. Lehe tenke tisi to’o dala haat (4) ka dala lima (5) tanba moruk los. Iha Timor Leste ema barak mak hatene lehe ho naran lokál oioin hanesan Kemak ema bolu Gabe, Makasa’e ema bolu Gala, Idate (Laherek), Tokodede (Dibia) no seluk tan. Iha Honduras to’os na’in sira uza lehe hodi hadi’a rai nia bokur nomos hamate du’ut. Populasaun Timor Leste 85% moris hanesan agrikultór ho sistema halo to’os mak hanesan tesi no sunu rai. Liu husi sistema kuda lehe iha ita nia rai bele hamenus tempu serbisu to’os na’in sira-nian nomos hamenus erosaun no aumenta rai nia bokur.

B7. Peskiza koto nani tinanPeskiza koto nani tinan (Phaseolus vulgaris) iha munisípiu Aileu 2013-2014

Maria Martins

Koto nani hanesan ai-horis ida importante iha mundu no Timor Leste. Peskiza adaptivu koto nani hanesan atividade ida ne’ebé mak presiza duni atu koko iha to’os nain sira-nia to’os, tanba munisípiu Aileu foin mak koko dala ida ba ai-horis koto nani.

Tinan ida peskiza ne’ebé realiza iha munisípiu Aileu hamutuk variedade oin tolu mak hanesan Lokál Ululefa (lokál rai na’in), variedade Mwirasi no RWV1348 neebe hanesan variedade foun introdus husi rai liur. Iha ne’e estabelese fatin peskiza 10 no 2 mak la konsege kolleita. Rezultadu produsaun husi variedade oin tolu ne’e mak hanesan; RWV1348 3.43 t/ha, tuir fali Lokál Ululefa 2.57 t/ha no Mwirasi 1.93 t/ha.

B8. Kuda hare iha BaliboEsperiénsia peskiza kuda variedade ai-horis hare iha Postu Administrativu Balibo tinan 2013 – 2015

Luis da Costa Patrocinio

Ai-horis variedade hare foun (Nakroma, M17, N2 ho Nona Lotan) ne’ebé koko iha agrikultór nia natar iha Balibo sai hanesan buat foun ida ba agrikultór sira. Antes atu kuda variedade ne’e agrikultór sira sente dúvida no hamosu pergunta barak, maibé prekupasaun hirak ne’e konsege responde iha tempu kolleita. Kolleita hotu tiha mak agrikultór sira deside kona-ba atu kontinua kuda variedade ida ne’ebé. Rezultadu hatudu katak husi variedade hare ne’ebé kuda iha agrikultór sira-nia natar iha époka kuda tinan 2013/2014 ho 2014/2015 hatudu rezultadu ne’ebé di’ak liu. Iha époka kuda tinan 2013/2014 variedade hare foun fó rezultadu ne’ebé diak liu kompara ho lokál, mak hanesanvariedade M17: 4.60 t/ha iha fatin OFDT’s 12, Nona Lotan: 5.26 t/ha iha fatin 3, Lokál : 4.14 t/ha iha fatin 12, Nakroma: 3.52 t/ha iha fatin 12 no variedade N2: 3.28 t/ha iha fatin OFDT 12. Nune’e mos iha époka 2014/2015 variedade ne’ebé fó produsaun di’ak liu iha fatin OFDT 11 mak hanesan; variedade M17 ho nia produsaun: 4.3 t/ha, N2: 3.5 t/ha, Nakroma: 3.4 t/ha, Nona Lotan: 3.3 t/ha no variedade Lokál: 2.9 t/ha

B9. Koto nani AfrikaKoto nani Áfrika hetan adaptasaun di’ak ho klima Timor-Leste

Armindo Moises, Luis Pereira, Antonio do Rego, Abril Fátima Lemos Soares, Amandio da Costa Ximenes, Tobias Monis Vicente, Luis Fernandes, Apolinario Ximenes and Maria Martins

Timor-Leste kategoria nasaun ne’ebé sofre malnutrisaun okupa númeru 3 iha Mundu (WHO, 2013). Tuir dadus Ministériu da Saúde no Unicef tinan 2013 hatudu katak, 50 % husi total labarik Timor-Leste ho idade tinan 5 mai kraik sofre malnutrisaun. Husi tinan 2009 MAP ho apoiu husi programa Seeds of Life (SoL), implementa ona teste koto nani (Phaseolus vulgaris) variedade foun oin 16 mai husi Rwanda/Áfrika, koko hamutuk ho lokál to’o tinan 2015. Rezultadu teste define iha variedade foun oin 3 (RWV 1348, Mwirasi no Decelaya) mak  iha produsaun konsisténsia aas liu lokál durante kuda iha diferensa ambiente no mos iha tinan barak nia laran.

B10. Sistema konservasaun agrikulturaTestu adaptive Sistema konservasaun agricultural iha Timor-Leste

Marcos Corréia Vidal, Robert Williams, Ruben Flamarique and Claudino Ninas Nabais

Timor Leste hanesan nasaun ki’ik ida ho nia populasaun besik milaun ida, ne’ebé 85 % moris ho vida agrikultór. Kondisaun jeográfiku rai ida ne’e mak foho no rai tetuk ho sistema agrikultura  subsisténsia. Aihan importante mak hanesan Batar, Hare, Ai-farina, Fehuk no ai-horis sira seluk. Seguransa ai-han sei sai hela obstaklu bo’ot tanba produsaun ne’ebé hetan maizumenus tonelada 0.94 kada hektar deit ba hare no batar. Produsaun menus ida ne’e tanba kauza husi sistema kultivasaun ne’ebé sei tradisional liu husi tesi ai, sunu rai no muda to’os husi fatin ida ba fatin seluk, no sei menus iha tékniku agrikultura di’ak inklui inovasaun foun. Atu muda sistema tradisionál ida ne’e ba Sistema Konservasaun Agrikultura hodi bele poupa gastus no hasa’e produsaun para bele kompete iha merkadu maka iha ne’e ami hala’o teste ida hanesan kuda kahur batar ho lehe (Mucuna pruriens (L.) DC var. utilis), duhaen, fore masin, ervilla, koto kambatik no seluk-seluk e mos liu husi tratamentu la fila rai, la sunu no mos uza mulsa. Teste ida ne’e hahu husi tinan 2007 to’o agora. Benefísiu husi Konservasaun Agrikultura mak atu hasa’e produsaun batar, hamate du’ut no seluk tan. Teste ida ne’e hatudu impaktu signifikante entre produsaun no tempu gasta ba serbisu hamoos du’ut. Kuda lehe kahur ho batar hasa’e produsaun husi tonelada 0.94 ba tonelada 2.74 t no hamenus loron gasta ba serbisu hamoos du’ut husi loron 5 tun ba loron 1 iha to’os ho luan hektar 1. Sistema ida ne’e kuaze adapta luan husi agrikultór sira iha teritóriu laran tomak.

B11. Fehuk midar CIP83 no lokal BaucauVariedade fehuk midar CIP83 no lokál Baucau propoin ba lansamentu

Felisberto A. Soares, Leandro C.R. Pereira, João Bosco B. Belo, Denisia R. Brito and Armindo Moises

Fehuk midar variedade oin rua ho kór ne’ebé úniku (kinur no roxu) sei lansa husi Ministériu da Agrikultura i Peskas hodi uza ba públiku. Variedade (CIP83) iha kór isin kinur hala’o ona teste durante tinan lima iha sentru peskiza no tinan rua iha agrikultór sira-nia to’os. Laos deit hanesan fehuk númeru 1 ne’ebé kontem vitamina A makaas maibé nia produsaun mos bo’ot liu dala rua kompara ho variedade lokál. Variedade local Baucau iha isin ho kulit kór roxu no isin laran roxu ida ne’e han sente midar liu no mos nia rezultadu produsaun dóbru kompara ho lokál. Variedade CIP83 introdus mai Timor–Leste iha tinan 2006 husi Center International da La Papa ho kode numero CIP440001. Variedade ida ne’e ho naran “Resisto” iha USA. Variedade lokal Baucau (kór roux) ne’ebé deskobre ka kolleita iha tinan 2011 husi to’os na’in sira iha Baucau mos seidauk klaru.

B12, Peskiza adaptasaun koto naniRezultadu peskiza adaptasaun koto nani iha Timor-Leste, period 2013-2015

Apolinario Ximenes

Koto nani (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) baibain ema kuda iha Timor-Leste no kontribui hanesan ai-han ba agrikultór sira ne’ebé hela iha área ho altitude médiu to’o aas. Variedade oin tolu mak koko iha to’os nain sira-nia to’os hanesan variedade RWV1348 , M.wirasi ho Lokál Ululefa. Fini sira ne’e koko ona iha to’os nain sira-nia to’os hahu husi tinan 2014. Peskiza ne’e implementa iha fatin ho elevasaun menus husi 500 to 2000 husi nível tasi.Koto nani Iha proteína aas no bele kuda kahur ho batar (intercropping) ou bele kuda mesak no tau ai hodi tonka (ajir). Tempu kolleita médiu mak fulan lima (5) ba variedade ne’ebé introdus hanesan RWV1348 no fulan haat (4) ba variedade Lokál Ululefa.

B13. Peskiza fore mungguTestu adaptive peskiza fore munggu propoin atu lansa variedade rua Merpati no Delta

Marcos Corréia Vidal, Robert Williams

Fore-munggu nu’udar ai-horis ida ne’ebé kategoria ba leguminosa no maioria dezenvolve iha área trópiku (rai manas). Ai-horis ida ne’e iha nia papel importante tebes ba saúde liuliu iha parte nutrisaun tanba ho nia konteúdu proteina ne’ebé ass maizumenus 23 % (USDA, 2016). Atu responde ba problema malnutrisaun, maka tenke dezenvolve hahan sira ne’ebé iha kualidade di’ak liu ho konteúdu proteina aas.  Esforsu ne’ebé oras ne’e dadaun Diresaun Peskiza serbisu hamutuk ho Fini ba Moris halo mak introdús ona fini fore-munggu variedade oin 8 husi Indonézia no Austrália iha tinan 2008. Variedade oin 8 ne’e teste ona iha sentru peskiza no iha to’os na’in sira-nia to’os, ne’ebé ikus mai identifika katak iha variedade oin 7 inklui mós variedade lokál hetan eliminasaun tanba ladún hatudu aprezentasaun di’ak. Husi variedade oin 8 ne’ebé halo teste kompara ho variedade lokál hatudu katak variedade Delta  no Merparti iha aprezentasaun di’ak tanba fó nia vantajen produsaun boot  liu variedade lokál  ho nia persentajen 29 % (Delta) ne’ebé akontese mos ba variedade Merpati iha aprezentasaun di’ak tanba fó nia vantajen produsaun boot  liu variedade lokál (42%) iha sentru peskiza Betano no Loes. Iha to’os na’in sira-nia to’os variedade Delta  hatudu vantajen produsaun boot  liu variedade lokál 30 % no variedade merpati nia vantajen produsaun boot  liu variedade lokál 29 %. Variedade Delta no Merpati adapta di’ak ba klima, hatudu rezultadu konsistente durante teste no tuir  preferénsia to’os na’in hili iha tempu koko sabor (farmer field day).

B14. Peskiza hare rai maranPeskiza hare rai maran

Rojino M. da Cunha

Iha tinan 2010 hare rai-maran introdus husi rai liur IRRI hamutuk variedade oin 100 tau tan ho lokál oin 3 tolu ne’ebé total hamutuk 103 mak kuda iha Sentru Peskiza Baucau/Darasula, atu hare kona-ba rezisténsia husi kada variedade ba moras, tempu funan sai no seluk-seluk tan. Iha peskiza ne’e konsege hili variedade oin 25 inklui lokál atu halo peskiza kontinuasaun ba replikasaun iha tinan 2011. Tuir dadus ne’ebé hetan hatudu katak iha variedade oin (4) hanesan: RO03, RO50, RO64 no RO50 mak fó rezultadu produsaun aas no di’ak liu wainhira kompara ho variedade sira seluk. Mezmu nune’e, variedade lokál mos fó produsaun di’ak. Hirak ne’e akontese tanba afeta husi pH rai ne’ebé menus: 5-5.5  no mos udan been: 221.5mm iha fatin peskiza.

B15. Duhaen nudar fore idaDuhaen núdar fore ida ne’ebé riku ho nutrisaun ba Ita nia saúde

Jose da Costa Ronal Freygen

Haree ba problema malnutrisaun ne’ebé infrenta husi populasaun Timor-Leste espesialmente labarik sira ho idade tinan lima mai kraik, hatudu katak ita nia ai-han la sufisiente atu fó apoiu ba oan sira-nia saúde. Duhaen núdar ai-han ida ne’ebé riku ho nutrisaun hanesan mos fore sira seluk, tanba ne’e duhaen  bele hadi’a problema malnutrisaun iha Timor-Leste. Duhaen nia naran Latina (Psophocarpus tetragonolobus L.) núdar ai-horis orijinál iha Timor-Leste. Ai-horis  ida ne’e iha nia multi funsaun tanba hahu husi nia dikin to’o nia isin iha rai laran bele konsume hotu. Ai-horis ne’e bele uza hodi halo ai-moruk ba kura moras lumbriga, kakorok bubu, moras laran no fisur. Relasiona ho problema malnutrisaun iha nasaun ne’e Ministeiro de Agricultura (MAP) ho programa Fini ba Moris introdus fini duhaen mai husi rai liur no halo koleksaun  fini lokál iha Timor-Leste tomak, atu halo peskiza hodi hetan kualidade no kuantidade fini duhaen. Fini hirak ne’e koko ona iha centru peskiza 3 hanesan Betano, Loes no Quintal Portugal. Peskiza ne’e koko ona iha tinan 2 nia laran no fó produsaun aas mak varidade D T4  2.58 t/ha, no rezultadu  menus liu iha varidade lokál Luro 0.58 t/ha. Duhaen introdus nia fuan barak, naruk, musan boot no gostu maibe duhaen lokal nia tahan barak, fuan uituan, musan ki’ik no lagostu tan ne’e to’os nain hili duhaen foun.

B16. Peskiza duhaen iha agrikultorPeskiza duhaen iha agrikultór sira-nia to’os 2013-2014

Maria Martins

Duhaen ho lian Indonézia (kecipir), hanesan ai-horis ida ne’ebé importante ba ema nia saúde, no mos iha nutrisaun ba labarik no ema bo’ot sira. Timor Leste kleur ona kuda duhaen maibé la hatene nia funsaun ka benefísiu. Peskizadór sira hatene kona-ba duhaen nia benefísiu ho nutrisaun ne’ebé fornese husi duhaen, tanba ne’e mosu inisiativa hodi halo peskiza ba variedade duhaen para bele habelar liu tan ba agrikultór sira. Tinan 2014 peskizadór koko duhaen iha munisípiu Aileu iha fatin 9 maibé 4 hetan failansu so 5 deit mak konsege kolleita. Hirak ne’ebé hetan failansu tanba kuda do’ok husi uma no la tau matan ne’ebé kauza nia rezultadu laiha. Variedade ne’ebé uza iha peskiza ne’e mak hanesan husi Tailándia nian ho produsaun 2.23 (t/ha), Indonézia nian 2.04 (t/ha),  no Papua Nova Guiné 1.94 (t/ha).

B17. QuicktestValidation of a rapid “QuickTest” for aflatoxins in peanuts and maize in Timor-Leste

Luis de Almeida, Francisco Sánchez-Bayo, Graeme Wright and Ivan R. Kennedy

The Seeds of Life project commissioned QuickTest technology to be applied to peanuts and maize in Timor-Leste. In November 2015 a workshop was held in Dili with more than 10 participants for training in the application of QuickTests and to validate the procedure against HPLC-fluorescence conducted in the NATA-certified laboratory of the Peanut Company of Australia (PCA). A set of 33 peanut samples extracted at the PCA and analysed by HPLC and Aflatoxin QuickTests provided data showing an r2 value of 0.9887 on regression; similar data for maize collected from various Timor-Leste regions are now being acquired in Sydney.

B18. 7 variedade founKaraterístika 7 variedade foun

Koto nani: Ululefa-RW

Koto nani: Fleixa-RW

Fore-mungu: Lakatea-AV

Fore-mungu: Kiukae-AV

Fehuk midar: Darasula-CIP

Fehuk midar: Sia-LT

Hare: Nakroma 1

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